Luke Chapter 22 [KJVwc]

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1 Now the feast of unleavened bread drew nigh, which is called the Passover. The feast – The feast of Passover lasted a week, and was one of the most important celebrated under the Jewish arrangement, beginning on the 15th day of the first month, Jewish reckoning, but preceded on the 14th by the killing of the lamb, and sprinkling of the blood on the doorposts of the houses as a memorial of what took place in Egypt. R3363:3, 1182:6

It was not the intention of our Lord to commemorate the feast of Passover, which began on the 15th of Nisan and lasted for an entire week, but merely to give us a memorial of his death on the 14th of Nisan. R1942:6, 596:4

Drew nigh – His arrival in Bethany was just a week before his crucifixion. The following day at supper Mary anointed him. The next day he rode on the ass into Jerusalem. The following day he visited the temple, driving out the money-changers. The next day he gave his last public discourse, in the Temple. On Wednesday, the Lord remained in Bethany in retirement, and on Thursday he sent two of his disciples to make ready the Passover. R3363:3

The Passover – The Passover was the first feature of the Law given Israel as a typical people. R839:1

The Lord provided for two great religious occasions, the one at the beginning of the secular year and the other at the beginning of the religious year. The Passover emphasized more particularly the passing over of the first-born; the Day of Atonement more particularly pictures the atonement for the sins of the whole world. R3749:2

The Passover season has always been one of special danger, special besetment to the Lord's consecrated people. R3760:3

It seems peculiar that there should be greater liability of falling into sin at one season than at another; but nevertheless, we have noticed for several years the peculiar force of temptations at the time of the Passover, every Spring. R3178:3

It was at Passover season that many followers said, "This is a hard saying," and walked no more with him; that Judas bargained for the betrayal of our Lord; that Peter, tempted to forget he was a disciple, undertook to rebuke the Lord; that the twelve got into a dispute as to who would be greatest; that our Lord himself was in an agonizing battle, and with bloody sweat submitting his will to the will of God; that the eleven all forsook the Lord and fled; that Peter was tempted to deny the Lord with cursings; and that our Lord was tempted before Pilate. R3178:3

From our Lord's standpoint the date was settled for the people by the decision of the Scribes. Whether they fixed an earlier or later date would not have particularly mattered; the object was to have a uniform date and to recognize the fourteenth day of the first month at even. So today, we do not understand that any hair-splitting is necessary in the ascertaining of the first day of the first month, Jewish time. R3750:6


2 And the chief priests and scribes sought how they might kill him; for they feared the people.

3 Then entered Satan into Judas surnamed Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve. Entered Satan – Satan had been working with Judas previously. R4577:3

No doubt reasoning that since Jesus was about to die he might as well sell the Lord and get what he could out of the transaction. R3878:6

If Judas had maintained an attitude of consecration to the Master, Satan would never have had the opportunity. Q616:1

Into Judas – When chosen an apostle, evidently a good man, at least so far as outward appearance was concerned. His name, meaning "Praise," would seem to indicate that his parents had been of a religious cast of mind. R2779:2

Representing some who, for earthly advantage for themselves, are willing to deliver other members of the Lord's body up to tribulation, adversity and reproach. R3366:6


4 And he went his way, and communed with the chief priests and captains, how he might betray him unto them. How he might betray – Judas did not reach this depth of iniquity suddenly, but rather the disposition had grown upon him during the three years of his intercourse with the Master, when the reverse disposition should have had control. R2779:2

5 And they were glad, and covenanted to give him money. To give him money – From the meager mentionings of the Gospel records, we may reasonably infer that the beginning of his downfall was the harboring of a love for money. R2779:3, 2468:2

Some who have consecrated their lives to be the Lord's followers and have been engaged in the ministry of truth, as Judas was there, are willing to sell the Lord for a mess of pottage--for good things of this present life, for a salary, for social position, for honor amongst men, for popularity and titles. R2779:4


6 And he promised, and sought opportunity to betray him unto them in the absence of the multitude.

7 Then came the day of unleavened bread, when the passover must be killed. Day of unleavened bread – The first day of unleavened bread was the 14th of Nisan. The Feast of Passover began on the 15th and lasted for seven days. (Ex. 12:18-20) R1800:2

Pure, unfermented bread, representing our Lord's sinless flesh. R5870:5, 2772:3

Bread of truth. R5870:4

The passover – The term Passover was frequently applied to the name of a festival week, but we must not confound this with the frequent references when the word feast is not used, which generally referred to the lamb that was killed as the Passover. R3749:1

"Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us." (1 Cor. 5:7) R3749:3

The typical lamb was put to death on the 14th day of the first month, so our Passover Lamb was put to death on the same day. R94:2


8 And he sent Peter and John, saying, Go and prepare us the passover, that we may eat. Prepare us – In the sense of furnishing and preparing the lamb, the unleavened bread, the bitter herbs and the fruit of the vine. R3363:6

The Memorial Supper was on the 14th day of Nisan after six o'clock on the evening before Jesus was crucified. R3526:2, 2771:5, 1625:3, 1182:6


9 And they said unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare?
10 And he said unto them, Behold, when ye are entered into the city, there shall a man meet you, bearing a pitcher of water; follow him into the house where he entereth in. The house – It has been surmised by some that the house was that of Mark's mother, Mary, and that the upper room thus used was the same one in which the apostles subsequently met and where the Pentecostal blessing was poured out upon them. R3363:6

11 And ye shall say unto the goodman of the house, The Master saith unto thee, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples? The Master saith – Probably the man was a believer. R1800:3

12 And he shall show you a large upper room furnished: there make ready. A large upper room – During the Passover week hospitality was recognized as a duty in Jerusalem; hence the readiness with which the Lord's request for a room was granted. R1800:3

Perhaps furnished by previous arrangement. R1800:3


13 And they went, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover.

14 And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him. When the hour was come – There can be no doubt from the account that our Lord and his disciples ate the Passover supper on the day preceding the one on which the Jews in general ate it. R2771:5, 721:1

Our Lord and his disciples did not sit down to the Passover until even--the beginning of the fourteenth day of Nisan. R3750:5, 3363:6

No man previously laid hands on him because "his hour was not yet come." The precise time of this great event and had not only been typified for centuries with careful precision as to the very day, but our Lord declares it so with equal exactness. R3526:1


15 And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer: With desire – Probably one reason was that he there designed breaking the truth of its significance to them to the extent that they could receive it. R839:3, 465:6

Eat this passover – As a Jew, under the Law Covenant, it was the duty of our Lord to eat first of the typical lamb. R1625:3, 839:1

Because the Passover lamb which they were to eat typified our Lord himself. R2449:1, 5870:5, 5641:1

Commemorating the saving of the typical first-born from the typical "prince of this world"--Pharaoh. R5641:4, 5870:2


16 For I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God. Until it be fulfilled – Doubtless he longed to have them understand that it would begin to be fulfilled a little later on in that very day, by the slaying of the real Lamb. R465:6

The Passover was fulfilled only so far as the slaying of the lamb; the eating of its flesh has been going on all through the gospel dispensation; and the Passover itself, which followed the eating of the flesh and sprinkling of the blood, is not yet fulfilled; but is to be, in the Kingdom of God. HG55:6

Reminding them of his declaration that he would go away to receive a Kingdom, which they would share. R5871:5, 721:2


17 And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide it among yourselves: The cup – It was Jesus' cup of which he drank. He gave it to his disciples to finish. Thus symbolically we are invited to be partakers of the sufferings of Christ. (2 Cor. 1:5-7) R4475:1

Representing shed blood. R1101:4, 5870:5, 2772:6

All who would sit with him in his throne must drink of Christ's cup of self-denial and self-sacrifice and be immersed into his death. R4591:4

The blood of sprinkling for the Church of the first-born. R5641:5

Divide it – All who would be members of his body must drink of this blood. R5341:3

Thus symbolically we were invited to be partakers of the sufferings of Christ. R4475:1


18 For I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God shall come. Fruit of the vine – The fruit of the vine was as important as the bread in the memorial; but it is never mentioned in connection with the weekly meetings for breaking of bread and for prayers. R1625:6

Raisin juice or grape juice may be used. R1101:5, 3751:5, 3526:6, 2773:4, 1626:4; Q486:4

The grapes must submit to the pressure that will extract all their juices,must lose their identity as grapes, if they would become the life-giving elixir for the world. R5871:3, 5341:3

Symbolizing our Savior's human life given for us; his soul poured out unto death on our behalf (Isa. 53:12) R5871:2

Represents blood or life shed, given, yielded up, sacrificed. R5871:4, 3526:4, 2772:6

"Shed for many for the remission of sins." (Matt. 26:28) R3526:4, 2772:6

Wine, "the blood of grapes," symbolizes death, and also the spirit, the effect being to cheer, refresh, enliven. R226:1

Until the kingdom – When he will share the new wine--the joys, rights and privileges of the divine nature. R721:2

The wine of our feast is but typical of the joys of the Kingdom. R94:6

As usual, our Lord had something to say about the Kingdom. It seems to have been associated in his every discourse. R2773:1

Shall come – Just what our Lord meant is difficult to positively determine, but it seems not inconsistent to understand him to mean that as a result of the trials and sufferings symbolized, there will be a jubilation in the Kingdom. R2773:1


19 And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me. He took bread – The Lord's Supper was instituted as a substitute for the Passover. R3750:4, 466:1

They had their usual Passover supper of roast lamb; and afterwards our Lord introduced what we familiarly term "The Lord's Supper"--a new symbolization of the antitypical Passover. SM563:2

Our Lord instituted the Memorial supper, the observance of the first day of the week and baptism, not by command, but by example. R1942:3

Probably it was near midnight when, after the Passover had been eaten, our Lord instituted the new memorial of his own death, the Lord's Supper, substituting it for the Passover supper of the Law. R2771:3

Instead of the lamb would be the unleavened bread, representing our Lord's flesh. SM563:3

The design of the Master was to call their minds from the typical lamb to himself, the antitype, and to show them that it would be no longer proper to observe a feature of the Law which he was about to fulfil. R839:4, 466:1

The bread is to be eaten by all, the wine may only be partaken of by a few. R1014:5

If we are Christ's, we are part of the same loaf; to be broken as he was; to die as he did, to the flesh, crucifying the flesh. R94:5

It is one loaf, though made from many grains. The grains cannot retain their individuality and their life if they would become bread for the world. R5341:3

Unleavened bread. R1943:2

Leaven is corruption. So, then, this symbol declares that Jesus was free from sin, a lamb without spot or blemish. R840:3, 466:5

The shape, at least, resembled more particularly what we would call crackers. R3364:4

If not available, soda crackers or water crackers are an unleavened bread, and will serve the purpose. R1943:4, 1626:2

"Holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners." (Heb. 7:26) R4591:2, 2772:3, 1101:4

Representing our Lord's perfect humanity. R1101:4, 5870:6, 4591:2, 2772:2, 1800:6; F464

The eating of that unleavened bread represented their appropriating to themselves of the merit of Christ's sacrifice--their justification by faith. SM563:3; R5871:1, 3526:4, 2772:3

"I am the bread of life." (John 6:35) R2772:3, 5870:6

And brake it – The bread must be broken to be appropriated. So, it was necessary that our Lord be broken in death ere we could appropriate his merit and enjoy everlasting life. R3526:4

He was the only one at that time who could break the loaf. Today, as the unleavened bread of the Memorial season is passed to each of us, and as each takes a portion of it, he breaks it for himself. R5341:5

Not only was the breaking of Jesus' body to provide bread of life, but it also opened the narrow way to life. R840:2, 466:5

Not to be confused with the feasts "to break bread" (Acts 2:42,46; 20:7). These first-day-of-the-week gatherings were love-feasts, and never intended to take the place of or in any sense represent our Lord's Memorial Supper. R2771:4, 1014:1, 839:6, 466:3

The first day of the week would be most inappropriate. Instead of being set apart to commemorate Jesus' death, it was to them a day of rejoicing, reminding them of the fact that the Lord is risen indeed. R839:6, 466:3

When we break this bread together, we not only symbolize our Lord's broken body, but also our own breaking or dying as members of the Church. R4622:5, 4591:5

Gave unto them – God gives you the best nourishment, although not always the sweetest to the taste. R721:5

This is my body – "This" represented the antitypical Lamb, "the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world." (John 1:29) R2771:6

The bread and the wine represented his body and his blood. R3364:4, 2772:2

It was not his pre-human existence as a spirit being that was sacrificed. R2772:3

Man is of human or flesh nature; hence if the spiritual Son of God would give to dying men the bread of life, it must be flesh, full of life-giving nutriment. R1014:3

Does not prove that the body is in the bread. The whole matter is quickly settled when we remember that our Lord had not yet died when he said these words. R3526:4

The loaf represents primarily the Lord Jesus' body. In a large sense, it includes all the body of Christ. Thus, the breaking of the loaf, the breaking of the body, has continued for more than eighteen centuries. R5341:5

The secondary and deeper significance of the loaf and the cup: "The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the participation of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the participation of the body of Christ?" (1 Cor. 10:16,17) R2772:5

The Roman Catholic doctrine of the Mass falsely claims that the bread is changed into the actual flesh of Jesus, which the priest breaks as a fresh sacrifice. R3526:3, 3879:5, 2771:2, 1100:4

Symbolically represents our partaking of the fleshly perfection of the man Jesus, not actually, but by faith. R4591:3

Which is given – We cannot eat anything that is alive, nor would anything that dieth of itself (by disease) be fit for food. There was no way to give us this bread of life except by the sacrifice of the man Christ Jesus. R1014:6

This do – Not out of fear, constraint, or law, but in grateful remembrance of our ransom. R1183:1

And do it intelligently. R1016:5

He invites all of his followers to eat of it. We partake of his flesh when we appropriate to ourselves the blessings, mercy and grace secured by the breaking of his body--the benefits of his sacrifice, securing to us the forgiveness of sins and reconciliation with the Father. R3364:5

The eating of that unleavened bread represented their appropriating to themselves of the merit of Christ's sacrifice--their justification. SM563:3

The Lord's Supper and Baptism are the only injunctions of a symbolic character commanded us, and they are new ones. F228; R1527:1

Assemble together, even if there be but two or three of like precious faith. Even the solitary ones may break the bread and partake of the wine, in heart communion with the Lord and with the scattered fellow members of the one body. R1014:1

Commemorate the death of the "Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world." (John 1:29) R1100:3, 5869:6, 1013:3

Annually, on its anniversary. R1100:3, 3961:3, 1625:3, 803:1, 721:4

As reckoned by the Jews, the apostles and the early Church. R1100:5, 2771:1, 1625:3

In remembrance – Our Lord's Supper was evidently intended to be a reminder of his death and of our covenant as members of his body to have fellowship in his sufferings. R2771:5T

How often the old covenant was to be celebrated is plainly stated in Exod. 13:10, "Thou shalt therefore keep this ordinance in his season, from year to year," and, as he has not altered the time, I dare not. R803:2

Protestants generally observe the celebration, the Memorial, not upon its anniversary but as irrespective of it, as though they had no knowledge of the relationship between the typical Passover and the antitypical day which the Lord enjoined upon us to celebrate. R3750:2, 1014:3

The Lord's Supper was instituted as the antitype of the Jewish Passover, the 14th day of the first month. Subsequently it was celebrated on the nearest Friday and his resurrection on Sunday--Good Friday and Easter Sunday. Younger Christian denominations, seeking differences with Catholicism, skipped the Jewish type and began weekly, monthly or quarterly celebrations. R2771:1, 1943:1, 1625:6

We do not quarrel with any who prefer to commemorate more frequently, neither do we regard it as a binding or compulsory observance. R325:2

Seeing the Memorial celebrates the antitype of the killing of the Passover Lamb, we can see that it is properly celebrated on its anniversary--not monthly, quarterly, weekly nor daily, but yearly. R1943:1, 1625:3, 1014:2, 839:5, 721:2, 596:1, 325:2

The Lord's Supper is a reminder of his death, as the Passover was a type of it. Jesus fulfilled the latter and instituted the former in the same night in which he was betrayed. R596:1

Of me – And no longer in remembrance of the typical lamb and the typical passing over of the typical first-born of typical Israel. R3525:6

He did not say, This do in remembrance of yourselves--in remembrance of your own share in the sacrifice. R5341:6

Remember him as the slain Lamb. R3879:5

No longer in remembrance of the typical lamb and the typical deliverance from Egypt. R1100:3, 4592:6, 3961:1, 839:4, 721:2

It would be no longer proper to observe a feature of the Law which he was about to fulfill. R466:1


20 Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you. The cup – A new feature added by our Lord. SM563:4

His act of handing the cup to the disciples, and asking them to drink of it, was an invitation to them to become partakers of his sufferings. R840:4

For "fruit of the vine" we prefer unfermented grape juice or raisin juice rather than wine, because if the liquor habit has a hold upon any one we would avoid the temptation to such. R1943:2

Representing the crushing of the grapes, the blood of the grapes--the Master's blood, his life poured out, sacrificed, and their lives with him. R4622:5, 5871:4, 4331:3, 3880:3, SM564:T

Nowhere is this cup described as wine, though it may have been. R2772:6

Like the bread, our partaking of it means our appropriation of the benefits of his sacrifice--our justification. R1800:6

It also memorializes the consecration to death of all the members of the Body of Christ. R4980:5, 4563:4

After supper – How appropriate that the giving of the wine was after the eating of the bread. Only those who are justified are invited to crucify their justified humanity. R1015:6

Not represented by the type, the Passover supper, but the symbol of joy and life. R94:5

After the Passover supper Jesus instituted the Memorial Supper, a new matter. R3879:4

A new Memorial upon the old foundation. R5870:5

This cup – All who accept the invitation to drink of his blood thereby pledge their lives in the same service in which he gave his life. This thought is entirely additional to anything in the Jewish Passover type. There is no intimation that any of the household were to partake of the blood of the slain lamb. SM564:1

It is one cup, though it contains the juice of many grapes. The grapes cannot maintain themselves as grapes if they would constitute the life-giving spirit. R5341:3

Of the new testament – The New Covenant is the one that is mentioned throughout the Old Testament, superseding the Law Covenant. R3364:5

The Keturah Covenant, or New Covenant, which is not yet in existence. R4367:4, 4331:3

As soon as the last member of the Body of Christ shall have died, the New Covenant with Israel will be sealed. R4453:3

We are invited to share his cup, to share the sealing, and to share the dispensing of the New Covenant blessings to Israel and the world. R4429:4

A covenant of mercy. R2859:3

The New Covenant cannot become operative until the cup of the Lord's sufferings which are left behind has been fully drained by the members of his Body. R4310:2,3, 5542:6; NS297:5

Typified by the Law Covenant instituted by Moses, to be instituted by the greater Prophet, Christ. R2859:2

A new and better covenant, by a new and greater Mediator, The Christ. R2859:1

In my blood – Instituted by reason of his blood. R1728:1

Both the Abrahamic Covenant and the New Covenant were secured, made sure, with his own precious blood. B69

The broken bread taught a part of the lesson; the cup taught the remainder of it. We not only need nourishment to come back to God and his favor, but we need the precious blood as our redemption price. R3526:5

It will continue to represent my blood with you, a reminder of my death and of the covenant which was thus sealed between God and sinners by myself as the great Mediator between God and man. R3364:5

Jesus' blood is the only one that could be meant. The cup represented our Lord's sufferings. He gave it to his disciples. R4475:1

Which seals, makes binding and obligatory, ratifies, the New Covenant. R2859:1, 4331:3; CR59:3

The blood of our Lord and the blood of his body is all one blood. It is one Priest of many members. It is one atonement for all--for the sins of the whole world. The blood represents not only the death of Christ, but also the death of all the members of his body, to whom merit is imputed. R5342:4

The Scriptures say that the life is in the blood. In harmony with that statement, the Jews were bidden to always refrain from eating the blood. The life principle that he gave to man seems to reside in the blood. As long as the blood is passing through the organs of circulation, there is life; but when the blood is shed, the being dies. R5341:6

No Israelite was allowed to eat blood. This was symbolic of how all eat the flesh of the Son of man, but all are not to drink or partake of his death. R1015:6

His right to the earthly life, by his obedience to the Law, is the merit which becomes the blood of the New (Law) Covenant, the basis of reconciliation between God and Israel. CR59:3

Which is shed – The fruit of the vine symbolized our Lord's life given for us--his human life, his being, his soul, poured out unto death on our behalf. R2772:4

Plainly presenting Christ's death as the means through which he gained ability to benefit many. R1335:6*

The blood, symbolized by the wine, represents death. The blood is the life of anything; and when it is shed, or taken from it, it implies the death of the creature. R1015:6, 840:4, 466:6

Many who trust in the precious blood have never philosophized on the subject sufficiently to see that blood shed always represents death, a life given up. R1337:4

By partaking of it intelligently we pledge our lives even unto death in the service of our Lord and Redeemer. R1015:6

If we, as his disciples, lay down our life for the brethren, we are doing what Jesus did. This cup, then, represents the full renunciation of earthly life and of all claims thereto. R5342:1

Whoever intelligently partakes of the Memorial Supper thereby indicates two things: (1) His faith in Jesus as the Passover Lamb, and (2) his membership in the body of Christ. SM564:2

Only those who both eat his flesh (appropriate his merits--justification) and drink his blood (share with him in his sacrifice) dwell in him as members of the one body. The balance of mankind, by eating (appropriating) the rights of the man Christ Jesus, obtain a dependent life. R1016:1

It was the giving up of Christ's life that paid the ransom. R1335:3*

We all need the blood of sprinkling, not upon our houses, but upon our hearts. R5870:4


21 But, behold, the hand of him that betrayeth me is with me on the table. The hand of him – John tells us that our Lord was troubled in spirit, manifested emotion, at the time he said this. R2772:1

It was a cause for great sorrow that it should be one who had been a bosom friend and disciple. R3364:3

That betrayeth me – It really made no difference to the Lord, so far as his intention and consecration were concerned, whether he was apprehended by the rulers without any betrayal or whether the betrayal were by a comparative stranger or by a disciple. R3364:2

An illustration of the hopelessness of a soul willingly submitted to the power of Satan. R1800:6

Judas' coolness manifested his hardness of heart and depth of hypocrisy. R1800:6

With me on the table – The Memorial is a gathering of professedly consecrated believers in the Redeemer; but if others come in making such profession reject them not; remember that Judas met with the Lord and the other eleven. R1626:2

Despite the custom that to receive another's hospitality is, especially in the East, a pledge of friendship. R3879:3


22 And truly the Son of man goeth, as it was determined: but woe unto that man by whom he is betrayed!
23 And they began to inquire among themselves, which of them it was that should do this thing. Began to inquire – They had the spirit of self-examination; a humble, loving spirit. R1800:6

24 And there was also a strife among them, which of them should be accounted the greatest. A strife – Only recorded in Luke, though also implied in John 13. We are not to suppose that the apostles were actuated wholly by ambition and selfishness. We may well suppose that the strife was for position of nearness to the Master because of their love for him. R3363:6, 2449:3

The strife probably began when they were taking their places at the table, each desiring to be nearest to the Lord, and so manifesting somewhat of a selfish spirit. R1800:3

Colporteurs and all public representatives of the truth are often subjects of special temptations. R1537:1

Possibly respecting which of them should perform the menial service of feet-washing. R2449:3

The discussion seems to have originated with Peter, because a pointed portion of the answer was addressed specially to him. R1987:2

Which of them – Should the temptation ever come to show wisdom by magnifying a minor difference between yourself and another, reject the thought as a temptation from the devil, and do the very reverse--minimize differences. R1537:4

The greatest – To aspire to advancement for self-glory is contrary to the spirit of God's plan, which is a love that places a neighbor on an equality with self, and which only desires advancement for the purpose of increased ability to serve others. R875:4*

Even a very little prominence may become a dangerous snare unless it be coupled with great humility. R1987:3

Not only a warning to the individual seeking preferment in the Church, but also an instruction to the Church to accept as its honored servants only such as he describes. R875:4*

They had willingly left business prospects and endured the scorn of their fellows that they might become joint-heirs with Christ in his Kingdom. The Master had invariably encouraged these hopes and ambitions. His reproof was merely against their strife as to which should be greatest. R1415:3


25 And he said unto them, The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and they that exercise authority upon them are called benefactors. Exercise lordship – The disposition of the world is toward tyranny on the one hand, and servility on the other; the one class becoming arrogant and self-assertive, and the other dependent and truckling, both of which are ignoble traits. R1987:3

26 But ye shall not be so: but he that is greatest among you, let him be as the younger; and he that is chief, as he that doth serve. Ye shall not be so – Ye shall not cultivate in yourselves a spirit of arrogant pride by seeking to lord it over others; nor shall ye cultivate in others a spirit of truckling servility, unworthy of noble manhood. R1987:3

But – On the other hand, cultivate in yourselves the spirit of humility and loving service. R1987:3

He that is greatest – He that has superior ability of one kind or another. R1987:5

Let him think soberly of himself, realizing how far short he is of actual perfection. R1987:5

The younger – Very meek and modest. R1987:5

Is chief – By qualifications and providential circumstances. R1987:5

Selfish aspirations have been a stumbling stone to very many of God's children. R875:4*

"Whosoever will be chief among you, let him be your servant." (Matt. 20:27) R1987:5


27 For whether is greater, he that sitteth at meat, or he that serveth? is not he that sitteth at meat? but I am among you as he that serveth.
28 Ye are they which have continued with me in my temptations. In my temptations – If we endure the temptations that befall us, we shall be able to identify ourselves with the character of the holy brethren. R811:1*

29 And I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me; I appoint unto you – The present Gospel age is merely for the selection and education of those whom God purposes to use as his ministers in the next age, the Millennium. R2490:2

A kingdom – While the words of warning were solemnly given, the Lord did not forget to give them also words of encouragement, pointing them to the glory to follow the present scenes of suffering and humiliation. R1988:1

Our Lord Jesus, in his talks with his followers, strengthened and encouraged their expectations of a coming Kingdom. A274

Appointed unto me – The exaltation of our Lord Jesus Christ to glory and honor and power and dominion does not imply that the Heavenly Father abdicates the throne of heaven in his favor; nor that they are one, for both are recognized. E38

For Christ to have a Kingdom appointed to him, as Luke records the conversation; and for him to sit on the throne of his glory, as Matthew records it (Matt. 19:28), appear to indicate one and the same rank. R1282:6*

Christ did not claim to be "equal in power." E38


30 That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel. Sit – Be permanently established. R1283:5*

Thrones – Symbol of sacerdotal or regal authority. R1283:1*

Judging – Greek, krino, the word is full of the thought of trial, or testing, or criticism; but it does not imply finality of decision. R2430:3

Krino is used in referring to the judgment, trial, of the Millennial age when the Church, Head and Body, will be the judges. R2426:4

Ruling. A274

"The saints shall judge the world." (1 Cor. 6:2) R2430:1


31 And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat: Simon, Simon – Indicating that the discussion above originated with Peter. R1987:2

It was the most trying time for his apostles, and particularly for Judas and Peter. Both were prominent--one as treasurer and purchasing agent; the other as a specially bold champion for the Lord's cause. R3759:3; C189

Three were tempted, varied results. Our Lord's course was the proper one, humility, fear, an appreciation of the trials leading to watchfulness and prayer. Peter, a good man of strong character, realized not his danger, and hence was not prepared for the arts of Satan. A fearful time for Judas, whose heart was not right. He fell quickly into the snare of the adversary. R3759:6

Satan – One of the frequent references by our Lord, along with a larger number by the apostles, referring to a personal devil. R3165:6

Whose very existence is now being denied by many. R3165:6

Hath desired to have you – This was no time for considering questions of superiority and self-exaltation; it was a time for sober thought and humble watchfulness and prayer. R1987:6

Sift you as wheat – Experience has repeatedly proved that at this season every year God permits Satan to specially sift the wheat. R1793:4

We are in the harvest time; the separation of the wheat from the tares is due, and more than this, the separation of the chaff from the wheat is also due--a sifting process. R3760:5

Separate you from your loyalty to Christ and discourage you from discipleship. R4712:4

This sifting took place shortly after the casting off of nominal fleshly Israel, foreshadowing the testing of the Sanctuary class now. C189

In the Spring of 1878, the parallel time, the sifting began which has continued ever since, and must test every one who receives the light of Present Truth. R3823:1

Siftings are permitted because only those who can standing siftings, trials and tests are fit for the Kingdom. R5563:6


32 But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren. I have prayed for thee – For all of the Peter class the Lord is the Head, the Representative, the Advocate before the Father. R3760:4

Because of the difference in the hearts of Peter and Judas, our Lord could properly be the Advocate of the one before the Father, but not the Advocate of the other. R4908:1; 3760:2

Thy faith fail not – Under the coming trial. R1987:6

Peter's courage was really his weak point. R5563:1, 5202:2

When thou art converted – From this disposition to a sober humility. R1987:6

Although both Peter and Judas repented, the one was accepted back to divine favor, the other was not. R3760:2

Strengthen – The more we resist temptation the stronger characters we will become. R5331:6


33 And he said unto him, Lord, I am ready to go with thee, both into prison, and to death. I am ready – Full of loving loyalty to the Lord. R1987:6

He did not know how much weakness was in him. When the Lord was watching and praying that momentous night, Peter was one of the first to fall asleep. Afterward he was the very one to deny the Lord, and with cursing. R5202:1


34 And he said, I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day, before that thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me. Peter – His zeal and energy made him a leading apostle. R1987:2

A good man of strong character, loyal and true, but bewildered and off-guard. R3759:6, 4907:5

The Peter class, although loyal of heart, do those things they do not wish to do, or leave undone what they really desire to do, because of weakness of their flesh and failure to lay hold on promised help. R3760:1


35 And he said unto them, When I sent you without purse, and scrip, and shoes, lacked ye any thing? And they said, Nothing. Without purse – To a covenant people whose duty it was to receive and entertain the messengers of the Lord, and whose receiving or rejecting of them would be a test of their fidelity to God as his covenant people. R1988:2

To show the Lord's full ability to care for them under all circumstances and conditions. R2500:2

Nothing – For the common people heard them gladly, and were greatly moved by their teachings and their works. R1988:4


36 Then said he unto them, But now, he that hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise his scrip: and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and buy one. But now – A change from the instructions in Matt. 10:10 which was given to the twelve apostles sent forth to announce the Kingdom. That was not a general instruction for all time, but particular to the occasion. That was not applicable to this present time. R2500:2

Let him take it – And thus, being independent of the people, show them that self-denying zeal for God which would gladly espouse an unpopular cause with no hope of earthly gain. R1988:4

To clearly manifest that when he was betrayed he gave himself up of his own free will, not being without defense. R3367:4, 5922:1, 2778:6, 2468:5


37 For I say unto you, that this that is written must yet be accomplished in me, And he was reckoned among the transgressors: for the things concerning me have an end. Be accomplished – The prophecies concerning me are about to be fulfilled in my crucifixion. R1988:4

38 And they said, Lord, behold, here are two swords. And he said unto them, It is enough. Two swords – Necessary to show that his capture was not made by force, but that he voluntarily permitted himself to be taken and crucified. R5922:1, 2468:5, 1988:5

It is enough – They were intended merely for a demonstration, and not for a defence. R5922:4

Our Lord had no thought of having his disciples war a carnal warfare on his behalf. R2468:4


Two swords ... it is enough – Perhaps a symbolic reference to the fact that the Word of the Lord is likened to a sword, and is comprised of two swords, i.e., the old and new testaments.

39 And he came out, and went, as he was wont, to the mount of Olives; and his disciples also followed him. He came out – Probably for two reasons: First, realizing he would be arrested, he did not wish to bring trouble on the friend who had permitted the use of the upper room; Second, he desired the still quiet of midnight, out upon the hillside, where he could be alone with God. R2773:6

As he was wont – Knowing the plot beforehand, he deliberately went to the place where they would seek him. R1988:5

Mount of Olives – To an orchard there known as Gethsemane, signifying "oil-press place." R2773:3, 3885:2

Followed him – Because he loved them, and knew that they loved him, he permitted them to accompany him to the place of prayer, that they might watch and pray with him. R1801:2


40 And when he was at the place, he said unto them, Pray that ye enter not into temptation. At the place – The Garden of Gethsemane, not a wild woods nor a public garden, but an olive orchard under the control of Jesus' friends, about half a mile from the wall of Jerusalem. R3885:2, 2773:6

Enter not into temptation – The most trying time of our Lord's earthly experience, and also for the apostles, especially Judas and Peter. R3759:3

The only safe way is to be prepared because your Adversary, the devil, is seeking whom he may devour. He knows your weak points, and is ready to take advantage of them. R3179:1

Some will make light of the warning and expose themselves to danger; others will hearken to the warning of the Master's voice, and to them it will be the power of God unto their preservation. R3761:4


41 And he was withdrawn from them about a stone's cast, and kneeled down, and prayed, Withdrawn from them – Leaving eight of the disciples there, as an outer guard, so to speak. R2773:6, 2467:2, 1801:2

He took with him Peter, James and John--Peter, the bold and impulsive; James and John, the so-called "sons of thunder"--the three most courageous, most zealous, most earnest of his disciples. R2774:1

"He trod the winepress alone, of the people there was none with him." (Isa. 63:3) In his very saddest hour, when he most needed comfort and consolation, it was not possible for even the closest and dearest of his earthly friends to enter into his feelings or sympathize with him. How different with us! R3886:4, 2467:2

If the Lord needed to seek retirement from the busy scenes of his active life to be alone with God, surely we need to do so. R1802:1

Kneeled down – Prostrating himself upon his knees, with his face to the earth. R2774:1

And prayed – We should follow the example of our Lord, and seek the Father's face, anxious to know whether or not everything is all right with him, anxious for some fresh assurance that it will be well with us. R2774:6

Our Lord followed the direction he gave to the disciples: he watched, he prayed, he got a blessing, he was strengthened, and came off victor. They did not watch and did not pray, failing to realize the necessities of the occasion, and as a result we find them scattered and bewildered. R2775:2

He found it needful to go to the Father for help to do his will. R146:6

That he might find grace to help in his hour of need. R1801:1, 2773:6


42 Saying, Father, if thou be willing, remove this cup from me: nevertheless not my will, but thine, be done. Father – No one can thoughtfully read this lesson of our Lord's dark hour in Gethsemane without feeling that there is something thoroughly incorrect in the idea that our Lord Jesus was his own heavenly Father, Jehovah. R2773:3

The oneness existing between the Father and the Son is not a oneness of person, but of sentiment and will. R1904:4

If it be possible – Apparently our Lord did not see any absolute necessity for his suffering more than the sinner suffered in order to pay man's ransom price. R2467:4; SM647:1

The death of the cross was not necessary as our ransom price. The Father required this extreme obedience as a test, and the loyalty of our dear Redeemer was fully attested. R2467:5

Remove this cup – We are not to assume that he meant to escape dying. The cup was the shame and ignominy of arrest as a law-breaker, a public trial and conviction, and subsequent crucifixion as a malefactor. R2467:4

Our Lord's query was: Could he stand this? or would it be possible for the Father to deviate to that extent without interfering with the divine plan for the great work being accomplished? R3886:2

Our Lord was exceeding fearful of himself, fearful lest he should make a misstep and thus spoil the entire plan of God which he had so obediently undertaken and thus far so loyally performed. R3886:2

His thought apparently: "I shall be esteemed of all my countrymen as forsaken of God, and as accursed of him; I shall die as a blasphemer; whereas my every sentiment is, and has always been, fealty, loyalty to the Father." This, we believe, was the "cup." R2775:2

We are to remember that he does not pour into our cup of sorrow and trial any bitter experiences that are not needful to us and that will not subsequently work out for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory (2 Cor. 4:17). R2469:1

Not my will – Not my human will. R146:6; T54

I claim no rights; I attempt neither to follow my own ideas nor to exercise my own will. SM647:1

The nearer a person is to perfection, the stronger is his will and the more difficult to crucify. The more confident any one is that his will is good and for good and blessing to others, the more difficult it is to see good reasons for surrendering it. SM647:1

In such a condition prayers are always answered; but in such a condition the prayers would be very modest; more a thanksgiving for our blessings. R798:2

An important principle, especially in those cases where we may, upon request, pray for the recovery of the afflicted or imbecile not of the consecrated little flock. R5204:3, 798:5

An expression of confidence and trust; indicating the necessary submission. R798:2, 3886:2

A valuable lesson for us to learn, of patience and waiting upon the Lord to direct in his own time and way. PD40/50

We are to give up our will in order that his will may be done. R5624:3

But thine – Father--the divine will. T54

I leave all to thy wisdom. SM647:1

Always this disposition of reverence for the Father, and of full trust and confidence in the divine wisdom, love, justice and power. R5846:6

So long as he thought there was a possibility of the elimination of the shame feature, he was nervously anxious to have it so; but as soon as he realized this was not the Father's will, his heart instantly responded. R2467:5

Though tempted in all points like as we (his brethren) are, he ignored his own will and all suggestions from others contrary to God's plan, and obeyed God implicitly. Therein lay the secret of his success. R1125:5

"If My Word abide in you" (John 15:7)--we must search the Scriptures to know the will of the Lord; to know what he has promised and what he has not promised; to know what to ask and what not to ask. R4983:3

"I came. . .not to do mine own will, but the will of him that sent me." (John 6:38) R5846:6

We should not merely submit to his will, but delight to do his will at any cost. R5303:6

Be done – In and to this earthen vessel consecrated to death. T54

In seasons of heavy trial, if we hold on to the arm of Jehovah, his grace will always be sufficient. R1802:4


43 And there appeared an angel unto him from heaven, strengthening him. And there appeared – While some old manuscripts omit verses 43 and 44, others do not. In the footnotes of the Tischendorf Testament, "S2" omits these verses. The "S" represents the Sinaitic manuscript, but the "2" represents a secondary or altered reading of that manuscript. The Sinaitic manuscript originally contained these verses, but some later hand obliterated them, thus making this manuscript to concur with the Vatican and Alexandrian. We are inclined to think these verses genuine. R3040:2, 146:6

An angel – We know not what message that angel brought, nor is it necessary that we should. It is sufficient for us to know that the Father answered the prayer. We can surmise that the Father's assurance through the angel was that he had the divine favor. R3886:3, 2774:5

This ministry may have consisted in informing him of the Father's will in respect to what things he should suffer, and how they were to be expected. R2468:4

Although there will not come to us the same kind of heavenly messenger, nevertheless a heavenly messenger of another kind shall surely be sent, it may be in the person of a fellow disciple, or it may be one of the apostles themselves, through the many gracious words of inspiration. R2775:4

The Lord is our angel, who speaks to us the Father's message, telling us that if we abide in his love all will be right in the end, and that he is able and willing to bring us off conquerors, yea, more than conquerors. R3887:1

We cannot doubt that in the hours of deep affliction, comfort and strength are often experienced, coming from the invisible, though not expected, and the source not fully acknowledged. R75:1*

Has not God commissioned his angels also to bear up the "feet" of the Body of Christ, lest some overwhelming trial prove too much for them? (Psa. 91:11,12) R1801:6

Looking back when in glory, we may see how much more fully they served us than we realized. R75:1*

There is to be a restoration of olden-time communication between heaven and earth, of which Spiritism is Satan's counterfeit. R1156:5

Strengthening him – Probably by refreshing his mind with the precious promises and prophetic pictures of the coming glory. R1801:5

Decision respecting the Father's will immediately brought strength. R2467:5

If the Master himself needed strengthening, surely we also need it; and if he received it in response to supplications, it is an intimation to us of the way in which God is pleased to bestow the full assurance of faith. R2775:3

With reinforced courage, not a courage born of stoical indifference to pain, shame and loss, but a courage born of faith. R1801:5

From that moment onward we find him the coolest and calmest of the notable figures brought to our attention. When approached by Judas and his band, when before Caiaphas and Pilate, when crucified, he was the most calm and self-possessed of all. R2774:5, 1801:6

With the assurance that he had fulfilled his part--rendered full obedience to the Father's will. R5331:4, 5585:6

That he had the Father's approval and that he would be resurrected. R4804:5, 5585:6

That all the gracious promises of glory, honor and immortality were his. R4804:6

The Father gives us peace and strength through his assurance in his Word. R3886:3

Prayers for help in trouble may be answered by removal of the cause, or by strength to overcome the disturbance. R3886:3


44 And being in an agony he prayed more earnestly: and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground. Being in an agony – A contest, a struggle. The language used in the Greek implies a struggle of increasing force and severity. R2774:1

While with his disciples he had sought to be cheerful; but now his thoughts turned inward upon himself and his relationship to the Father; and outward upon the public shame, the contemptuous mockery and the public execution. R3885:3

Our Lord, untainted, unblemished by sin, undegraded, undulled by dying processes, was much more susceptible to the pains and sorrows of the hour than others of the fallen race could be. The finer the sentiments and characteristics, the greater the pain. R3885:3

Matthew: "sorrowful even unto death," a sorrow which almost crushed out his very life; Mark: "sore amazed," as though the sorrow had come upon him unexpectedly, as though he were bewildered. R2774:1

Because of the coming shame of trial, conviction and execution as a blasphemer and seditionist, and oppressed with the fear that in some manner he might have failed of perfection, and that his death might mean extinction. R3886:1, 2, 3885:3

Prayed more earnestly – "He offered up strong cryings and tears unto him that was able to save him from [out of] death." (Heb. 5:7) R3885:6

As soon as he had the Father's assurance that he had not violated any conditions, and that he would not go into eternal death, he was content to suffer any other experience that might come to him. R5585:6

Drops of blood – In the agony of Gethsemane the heart and the blood vessels had been affected. The palpitation of the heart had been so intense as to cause a blood sweat--a phenomenon rare, but not unknown, produced by intense mental excitement. SM642:1; R1801:2

This bloody sweat is not unknown to physicians today, although very rare. It marks an extreme tension of feeling, sorrow nigh unto death. R2774:1

The chief reason why our Lord sorrowed on this occasion, so that his agony, becoming very intense, produced a bloody sweat, was his realization of his own situation in relationship to God and the covenant under which he had made his sacrifice. R3885:5

The very thought of extinction would bring anguish. This thought seems not to have come to our Lord with the same force previously. He now saw himself about to suffer according to the Law as an evil-doer, and the question naturally arose, was he entirely blameless, would the heavenly judge thoroughly acquit him whom so many were disposed to condemn? R2774:5

Infidelity has suggested that this account of our Redeemer's sorrow attests his weakness. Many martyrs faced death with boldness. There is a dullness and numbness connected with fallen manhood that can regard pain and death with indifference. We are glad that Jesus was not one of those cold, stoical icebergs, but that he was full of warm, tender feelings and is thus able to sympathize with the most tender, delicate and refined, more than any other human being. R2774:2, 1801:2

A cold, stoical indifference to the loss of life, based upon knowledge that it could last but a short time longer anyway, is very different from the clear knowledge our Lord had and the realization that the life he was about to lay down was not forfeited through sin, but was a voluntary sacrifice. R2774:3, 2467:2

Our race, already nine-tenths dead, has but a feeble appreciation of the value of life and has come to regard death with equanimity. To our Lord, death must have been much more terrible than to us who are already nine-tenths dead and correspondingly blunted in all our sensibilities. R2467:3

Prof. Tischendorf shows that this account of our Lord's bloody sweat is not found in the Vatican manuscript and that, although it appeared in the original Sinaitic manuscript it was crossed out by a later critic. The passage is therefore doubtful, or at least questionable. R2774:3

The drops, (called thromboiclots), are symptomatic of a disease called diapedesis, and is caused by extreme tension of the nervous system. It once afflicted Charles IX of France. R2767:1*


45 And when he rose up from prayer, and was come to his disciples, he found them sleeping for sorrow, Disciples – Gracefully he condescended to men of low estate, and esteemed them brethren beloved, of whom he was not ashamed. R1801:2

It was no sign of weakness in the Master that he thus craved human sympathy. R1801:2, 3886:6

Sleeping for sorrow – Their eyes being heavy from sorrow. R3886:6

The hour was midnight; they were sharing his sorrows, but unable to appreciate them rightly. R3886:6


46 And said unto them, Why sleep ye? rise and pray, lest ye enter into temptation. Why sleep ye? – Are we asleep, or are we heeding the words of the Apostle, They that sleep, sleep in the night, but we who are of the day should be awake, sober, putting on the whole armor of God? R3887:1

Rise and pray – We are to pray together as the Lord's people; we are to pray in our homes, as families; we are to pray in secret, in private; we are to have the spirit of prayer in all that we say and do. R2775:5

Some make the mistake of praying without watching; others make the mistake of watching without praying; but the only safe and proper method is that which our Lord directed, to combine the two. R2775:5

There seems to be special need of this during the Memorial season. R3178:3,6, 3179:1

Lest ye enter – Those who neglect the Master's words will be sure to enter into temptation, and tolerably sure to fall therein. The fall will be severe, even though, like Peter, they should be afterward recovered out of it--but with weeping. R2775:5

In this evil time, an hour of severe trial is upon us all. R2774:5, 2775:4

There is a peculiar force of temptations at the time of the Passover, every Spring. R3178:3, 3760:3


47 And while he yet spake, behold a multitude, and he that was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them, and drew near unto Jesus to kiss him. While he yet spake – Arresting him by night, fearing that an arrest in daylight would create a disturbance at a time when the city was full of visitors to the Passover. R3887:2

A multitude – Not Roman soldiers, but a rabble of the curious, with certain servants of the High Priest, who was also a Judge. These were court officers, an impromptu sheriff's posse. R3887:2, 2779:1, 2467:6

Judas – At the beginning of his discipleship, probably sincere, the gross defection of heart and character coming on him gradually, beginning with the merest suggestion and ending with the most awful tragedy. The suggestion was probably along the line of selfishness. R3887:4, 2779:2

There will always be a motive, good or bad, back of every deed done to under-members of his body, as well as to the Head. To find strong motives is not to find valid excuses for treacheries. R2468:2

The Judas spirit of selfishness even today might lead to betray of the Lord by the betrayal and injury of one of the least of his followers. R3887:5, 2468:1

One of the most detestable characters in history. R4909:5

Whose heart was selfish, ambitious, covetous--a money-lover, betraying the Master for thirty pieces of silver. R5552:2, 4908:2, 3759:6, 3366:3

As retribution, Judas died soon by his own hand. R3369:3

When temptation comes, the disloyal and selfish Judas class receive it, entertain it, enter into the spirit of it heartily, and are swallowed up by it. R3760:1, 4908:1

Went before them – It is presumed, apparently on good grounds, that they first sought Jesus in the upper room, where he had left less than an hour before. Finding them gone, Judas knew he would be most likely to find them at Gethsemane. R2468:1

Judas either knew the garden as a spot frequented by Jesus and the disciples, or had learned at the supper where the company intended to go subsequently. R3887:2

Evidently advancing beyond the band to give the salutation, according to prearrangement, they he should thus indicate the one they sought. R2779:2

To kiss him – The Greek indicates that he kissed him repeatedly. R3887:2

The representatives of the Judas spirit follow his course even to the extent of betraying with a kiss, ofttimes professing great love and respect for the members of the body of Christ, whom they secretly smite for their personal gain, or in an endeavor to gain place or influence or other selfish aggrandizement. R3887:6

Some are willing to sell even their lips, as Judas did, so that, while professing to honor and serve the Lord, they are willing to join with those who misrepresent his character, his plan and his Word. R2779:4


48 But Jesus said unto him, Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss? Betrayest thou – Judas was the chief, the real crucifier, because of his knowledge and willfulness. Upon him alone our Lord placed the full guilt. R1962:5

49 When they which were about him saw what would follow, they said unto him, Lord, shall we smite with the sword? Smite with the sword – All through the dark ages the sword, military power, was invoked and used on behalf of one party and then another of professed followers of Christ; sometimes against unbelievers, but very frequently against fellow-professors. R2779:4

50 And one of them smote the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear. Smote the servant – Peter probably reasoned that if the Lord had directed the bringing of the swords they were for use and not ornament. R2778:6

Perhaps he remembered the Lord's words of a few hours previous, to the effect that his followers would all forsake him, and his own promise, "Although all shall be offended, yet will not I." (Mark 14:29) R2468:6

Of the high priest – If Roman soldiers had the matter in charge, the high priest's servant no doubt would have been less officious. R2468:1

Cut off his right ear – The blow was evidently intended for the head, but perhaps was providentially warded off so as to injure merely the ear. R2779:1


51 And Jesus answered and said, Suffer ye thus far. And he touched his ear, and healed him. Suffer ye – While the excitement and activities of a battle inspire courage, to be compelled to stand idle and not be permitted to lift a hand in self-defense in the presence of an armed enemy, is most discouraging to anyone. R2779:1

Healed him – Exemplifying his words, "Love your enemies, do good to them which persecute you." R2469:1


52 Then Jesus said unto the chief priests, and captains of the temple, and the elders, which were come to him, Be ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and staves?
53 When I was daily with you in the temple, ye stretched forth no hands against me: but this is your hour, and the power of darkness. This is your hour – It is probable that Judas was disappointed in the result of his betrayal. Apparently he expected that our Lord would deliver himself by miraculous power from the hands of his enemies. R2468:2

The power of darkness – The power of Satan is the power of darkness, ignorance and superstition. As the light of truth advances, the power that can only work in darkness is to that extent curtailed. R1233:3


54 Then took they him, and led him, and brought him into the high priest's house. And Peter followed afar off. Then took they him – It would appear that the Jewish Sanhedrin exercised a certain amount of authority in respect to religious matters, and were permitted to make arrests, but not to execute criminals without the consent of the Roman governor. R2467:6

Our Lord surrendered voluntarily. R5922:2

Into the high priest's house – For a preliminary hearing to examine Jesus and formulate and decide upon the charges on which it would convict at the formal meeting at dawn. R2470:4

It is clear that this was an irregular meeting of this assembly of the nation's representatives, drawn together by common consent to participate in the crime of condemning their Messiah, Jehovah's Anointed. R1809:2

Evidently a few such men as Joseph of Arimathea, Nicodemus and probably a few others known to be favorably inclined toward the new teacher were carefully excluded. R1809:2

Peter followed – John points out that Peter and himself followed at a distance. Their deep interest in the Master would not permit them to go to their homes; they must keep him in sight, and note how things would go with him to the very last. R2469:2

His very courage led him into the trap placed before him by the adversary. This quality showed when he went into the courtyard of the palace and mingled with those who were there, even after cutting off the ear of one of the priest's servants. R5202:2


55 And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the hall, and were set down together, Peter sat down among them.
56 But a certain maid beheld him as he sat by the fire, and earnestly looked upon him, and said, This man was also with him.
57 And he denied him, saying, Woman, I know him not. I know him not – Far better for poor Peter to have openly declared, "Yes, I am one of his disciples, and since I presume that none such are wanted here I will go out." R2469:2

Peter's failure was along the very line of his strength. He was naturally courageous, had boasted of it, and yet failed for lack of courage. "When I am weak then I am strong," implies that he who feels himself strong is really weak, as in Peter's case. R2469:5

So with some today; when they are by themselves or with others of like precious faith, they are bold and courageous; but when in palaces or amongst officers of nominal Christianity, they are ashamed of their Master and afraid to confess him. R2469:2

But this sin was before the Spirit was given. F224

His devotion succumbed to his fears, so that he openly denied him. R1987:6

Perhaps the Lord allowed that to happen for our sakes, that we might realize our need to put our confidence in the Lord. CR307:5


58 And after a little while another saw him, and said, Thou art also of them. And Peter said, Man, I am not. I am not – One false step leads naturally to another; to have now declared for Jesus would have been a public testimony that he was a liar, in addition to leading to his apprehension. R2469:3

59 And about the space of one hour after another confidently affirmed, saying, Of a truth this fellow also was with him: for he is a Galilaean.
60 And Peter said, Man, I know not what thou sayest. And immediately, while he yet spake, the cock crew.
61 And the Lord turned, and looked upon Peter. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. Looked upon Peter – A look of loving sympathy. R4712:5

And Peter remembered – Had he realized the trials that were near, how vigilant he doubtless would have been! How ready are we for the harvest-time ordeal? R3886:6, 3887:1


62 And Peter went out, and wept bitterly. Wept bitterly – The weeping showed that the denial was merely the result of the weakness of the flesh. R5202:2

His crushing out of the evil inclination toward self-preservation proved, that in spite of his thrice-repeated denial, he was at heart loyal to his Master. So with us; he who resists the smallest temptation thereby strengthens his character that he may be able to withstand greater ones. R5202:2

Both Peter and Judas were penitent; the one was accepted back to divine favor, the other was not. The one, merely entrapped, at heart was not disloyal, and was restored and blessed. The other, though not without conscience, as shown by his later remorse, was without the genuine loyalty of heart which in the Lord's sight is indispensable. R4908:1

Tradition says that for the rest of his life Peter arose every morning at cock-crowing to remember afresh this denial of the Lord. R3368:1


63 And the men that held Jesus mocked him, and smote him. Mocked him – Low minds delight in the misfortunes of those whom they realize to be their superiors. R2470:5

And smote him – "I gave my back to the smiters and my cheeks to them that plucked off the hair." (Isa. 50:6) E52

"Consider him who endured such contradiction of sinners against himself." (Heb. 12:3) R2781:6


64 And when they had blindfolded him, they struck him on the face, and asked him, saying, Prophesy, who is it that smote thee? They struck him – It is not necessary to suppose the officer intentionally unjust; rather, influenced by his desire to appear zealous in support of the high priest, this accentuated his mental unbalance as a fallen man, and led him to imagine evil where there was none. R2469:6

On the face – Our Lord did not literally turn the other cheek and ask the man to smite that also. This illustrates how the Lord's people are to understand this command, meaning simply that they are not to resist evil with evil, but to resist evil with good. R2469:6


65 And many other things blasphemously spake they against him. Many other things – "I hid not my face from shame and spitting." (Isa. 50:6) E52

Between the examination and formal conviction, our Lord was subjected for two hours to mocking and insults. R2470:5

By contrast, the spirit of Christ is that of love, gentleness, sympathy, kindness. R2470:5


66 And as soon as it was day, the elders of the people and the chief priests and the scribes came together, and led him into their council, saying, As soon as it was day – About five o'clock. The Jewish Law forbade a trial by night. R2470:4

Led him – The formal trial before the Sanhedrin at dawn was merely a ceremony--a farce--the determination to kill Jesus having been reached long before his arrest. R2470:4

They desired no such King, no such Savior, no such Messiah. R3895:3

Into their council – It is not sufficient that we go through a form or ceremony of justice. It is all-important that we have more than the forms of justice; we must have the spirit of righteousness, a love for righteousness. R2470:4


67 Art thou the Christ? tell us. And he said unto them, If I tell you, ye will not believe:
68 And if I also ask you, ye will not answer me, nor let me go.
69 Hereafter shall the Son of man sit on the right hand of the power of God. Hereafter shall the Son – This prophecy compassed the certainty of his death and resurrection and pointed to his return in the end of the Gospel age in power and great glory. R1809:5

Right hand of power – "Sit thou on my right hand till I make thine enemies thy footstool." (Psa. 110:1) A92, A93


70 Then said they all, Art thou then the Son of God? And he said unto them, Ye say that I am. The Son of God – The Jews would have been afraid to call themselves sons of God, or to call him their Father. If they had spoken of themselves as sons of God, they would have thought that they were doing something reprehensible. R5219:2

Not Jehovah himself. R2781:5

Because he said this, they said he was a blasphemer. R5219:2, 2781:5

Ye say that I am – Knowing that his reply would be like signing his death warrant. R1809:5


71 And they said, What need we any further witness? for we ourselves have heard of his own mouth. Need we any further – The condemnation was rushed through for two reasons: (1) the great Jews feared that the common people would defend Jesus; and (2) the Passover was at hand and they wanted to kill him before it. R2470:4

How little did they realize that they were being permitted of God to exercise the evil desires of their hearts, and thus to fulfill types and prophecies to the very day. R2470:4


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